As one a founder of the science of bacteriology, Robert Koch (1843-1910) enjoyed worldwide fame, including acknowledgement of his discovery in 1882 of the tubercle bacillus that caused tuberculosis and in 1884 the cholera bacillus, Vibrio cholerae. For his many scientific achievements in 1905 he received the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. But how could there by two discoverers of the cholera organism when one reported his findings 30 years before the other? The answer follows.
The German physician Robert Koch, like most of the scientific community, was unaware of Pacini's work at the University of Florence. Yet both independently came to a similar conclusion. Since Koch's findings eventually became accepted by his scientific peers, and were widely know in the popular press, he became the acknowledged discoverer of the cholera organism.
REDISCOVERY OF CHOLERA ORGANISM
During 1883, cholera was epidemic in Egypt. Koch traveled with a group of German colleagues from Berlin to Alexandria, Egypt in August, 1883. Following necropsies, they found a bacillus in the intestinal mucosa in persons who died of cholera, but not of other diseases. He reasoned that the bacillus was related to the cholera process, but was not sure if it was causal or consequential. He stipulated that the time sequence could only be resolved by isolating the organism, growing it in pure culture, and reproducing a similar disease in animals. He was not able to obtain such a pure culture, but did try to infect animals with choleraic material. None became infected. His thoughts and early findings were sent in a dispatch to the German government and shared with the German press.
Late in 1883, Koch requested authorization for his team to sail to Calcutta, India to continue their work. The epidemic had subsided in Egypt but was still very active in India. The team continued their research work. On January 7, 1884, Koch announced in a dispatch that he had successfully isolated the bacillus in pure culture. One month later he wrote again, stating that the bacillus was not straight like other bacilli, but "a little bent, like a comma." He also noted that the bacillus was able to proliferate in moist soiled linen or damp earth, and was susceptible to drying and weak acid solutions. Finally, he pointed out that the specific organisms were always found in patients with cholera but never in those with diarrhea from other causes, were relatively rare in early infection, but were extensively present in the characteristic "rice water stools" of advanced cholera patients. He was, however, still unable to reproduce the disease in animals, reasoning correctly that they are not susceptible. In May, 1884 Koch and his colleagues returned to Berlin where they were treated as national heroes.taken from here.
apa yang menarik sangat sampai saya paksa sume orang baca.
ketahui lah bahawa cholera bacillus tersebut telah ditemui oleh Robert Koch buat pertama kalinya di Alexandria ini. dengan tempat lebih spesifik,di ANATOMY DEPARTMENT, ALEXANDRIA UNIVERSITY sekarang ini yang ketika itu merupakan main hospital kat alexandria. (ehhh, serius ke prof cakap tadik ek? sangat tak sangka ya)